Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues.
Characteristics of language Definitions of language Many definitions of language have been proposed. Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and language scholar, stated: Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts.
Trager formulated the following definition: A number of considerations marked in italics below enter into a proper understanding of language as a subject: Every physiologically and mentally typical person acquires in childhood the ability to make use, as both sender and receiver, of a system of communication that comprises a circumscribed set of symbols e.
In spoken languagethis symbol set consists of noises resulting from movements of certain organs within the throat and mouth. In signed languagesthese symbols may be hand or body movements, gestures, or facial expressions. By means of these symbols, people are able to impart information, to express feelings and emotions, to influence the activities of others, and to comport themselves with varying degrees of friendliness or hostility toward persons who make use of substantially the same set of symbols.
Different systems of communication constitute different languages; the degree of difference needed to establish a different language cannot be stated exactly.
No two people speak exactly alike; hence, one is able to recognize the voices of friends over the telephone and to keep distinct a number of unseen speakers in a radio broadcast. Yet, clearly, no one would say that they speak different languages.
Generally, systems of communication are recognized as different languages if they cannot be understood without specific learning by both parties, though the precise limits of mutual intelligibility are hard to draw and belong on a scale rather than on either side of a definite dividing line.
Substantially different systems of communication that may impede but do not prevent mutual comprehension are called dialects of a language. In order to describe in detail the actual different language patterns of individuals, the term idiolectmeaning the habits of expression of a single person, has been coined.
Typically, people acquire a single language initially—their first language, or native tongue, the language used by those with whom, or by whom, they are brought up from infancy. Complete mastery of two languages is designated as bilingualism ; in many cases—such as upbringing by parents using different languages at home or being raised within a multilingual community—children grow up as bilinguals.
Language, as described above, is species-specific to human beings.
Other members of the animal kingdom have the ability to communicate, through vocal noises or by other means, but the most important single feature characterizing human language that is, every individual languageagainst every known mode of animal communication, is its infinite productivity and creativity.
Animal communication systems are by contrast very tightly circumscribed in what may be communicated. Indeed, displaced reference, the ability to communicate about things outside immediate temporal and spatial contiguity, which is fundamental to speech, is found elsewhere only in the so-called language of bees.
Bees are able, by carrying out various conventionalized movements referred to as bee dances in or near the hive, to indicate to others the locations and strengths of food sources. But food sources are the only known theme of this communication system.
Surprisingly, however, this system, nearest to human language in function, belongs to a species remote from humanity in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, the animal performance superficially most like human speech, the mimicry of parrots and of some other birds that have been kept in the company of humans, is wholly derivative and serves no independent communicative function.
Attempts to teach sign language to chimpanzees and other apes through imitation have achieved limited success, though the interpretation of the significance of ape signing ability remains controversial.
However, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies have drawn attention to a range of other functions for language. Among these is the use of language to express a national or local identity a common source of conflict in situations of multiethnicity around the world, such as in Belgium, Indiaand Quebec.
Language interacts with every aspect of human life in society, and it can be understood only if it is considered in relation to society. This article attempts to survey language in this light and to consider its various functions and the purposes it can and has been made to serve.More Analysis of Merode Altarpiece.
The Merode Altarpiece is relatively small in size, measuring roughly 4 feet in width by 2 feet in height, and like the earlier Seilern (Entombment) Triptych, was designed as a private devotional piece for use in the webkandii.com consists of three hinged panels (triptych format): the left panel depicts the donor and his wife; the central and most important panel.
Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England.
He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award. Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.
Pieter Bruegel was born around , near Netherlands. He was most likely born in the town of Bruegel, Brabant (Gibson 13).
Like many young boys during the Renaissance, Bruegel studied his . It was a.m. on Friday, January 12, the middle of the morning rush hour.
In the next 43 minutes, as the violinist performed six classical pieces, 1, people passed by. Pieter Bruegel the Elder: The Greatest 16th Century Flemish Painter Essay Sample Pieter Bruegel (about ), usually known as Pieter Bruegel the Elder to distinguish him from his elder son, was the first in a family of Flemish painters.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder: The Greatest 16th Century Flemish Painter Essay Sample. Pieter Bruegel (about ), usually known as Pieter Bruegel the Elder to distinguish him from his elder son, was the first in a family of Flemish painters.