Communism and Socialism — A Struggle of Ideals Communism and Socialism are two economic philosophies that are focused on the treatment and equality of all members of a society. Often, these terms are used interchangeably, as Communism stems from socialist ideals.
It promises efficient production and equitable distribution, ensuring economic self-sufficiency to all, and a feeling of fraternity between man and man. The political philosophy of communism was developed by Karl Marx, in collaboration with his friend, Frederick Engels. Marxian communism was further developed by V.
Lenin, the founder of the communist regime in Russia. Lenin put into operation the fundamental principles of Marxian communism and thereby demonstrated that the socialist idea is not a Utopian theory but is politically practicable and realisable.
Marx is the founder, Engles the architect and Lenin is the builder of communism through revolution.
In consolidating Sovietism of Marx, Lenin's contribution has also to be recognised. Communism is the extreme and violent form of revolutionary socialism. For a proper understanding of the communist doctrine, it is necessary to grasp the basic principles of Marxian doctrine which are — 1 materialistic conception and interpretation of history; 2 the labour theory of surplus value 3 the law of concentration of capital; and 4 class war.
Marx interpreted all historical movements in terms of the material conditions of life. The appropriation of land and other means of production for private use and profit has all through history divided society sharply into two hostile; lasses.
Just as in the past the interests of the serf or landless slave peasant were opposed to those of his feudal lord, so also in the present industrial age, the interests of the capitalist class and those of the factory workers are opposed to each other.
This provides thesis and anti-thesis. The propertied class with all the means of production at their command, buys the services of the penniless working class which depends for its livelihood upon its sale of labour power. Labour, according to Marx, is the sole generator of value and what is called profit accrues to the capitalist employer simply by the process of depriving and exploiting labourers of the full value of their labour.
The result is that the profit of capitalist owner increases while the condition of the workers deteriorates proportionately. It is like the generation of positive and negative energy in the dynamo at two ends at the same time.
The history of mankind is the history of this deprivation. At one stage, things become unbearable and the system bursts. In fact, in Nature it has been found that after the process of evolution there comes a stage when the tegument of the tree bursts; this follows leap or jump, like water becoming steam at degree heat a qualitative change.
This is known as Dialectical Materialism that advocates complete change at times. But the capitalistic system of production, according to Marx, carries, embedded in itself, its own seed or destruction.
The growth of large-scale production leads to the extinction of small-scale producers who, unable to compete with their large-scale rivals, are ultimately driven to swell the rank of ordinary workers.
The independent artisan becomes a wage earner, and the number of disgruntled proletariat increases. This is how trade Unions originate and acquire power. At the same time, by keeping down wages, the capitalists unconsciously cause a shrinkage of their home-market and they have to finance and organise their sale of goods in foreign markets.
Thus, Marx's slogan is — "workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains. The constant endeavour of the capitalist class to keep down wages arouses workers to organised resistance.
There also starts infighting among the capitalists for class of individual interests. This is known as the inner class contradiction among the bourgeoisie.Communism Essay This example Communism Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only.
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